clinical anatomy of ulna

Hand (N Y). White TD, Folkens PA. The configuration of the ulna on the radius allows for the lower portion of the forearm to give motion to the wrist and the hand. Individuals who receive stress fractures should be educated on prevention of future stress fractures as part of their rehabilitation course. Learn everything about the humerus anatomy here: Reviewer: However, both treatments are urgently needed after a fracture of any kind to prevent bone and joint deformity and decrease the risk for impaired function.. – This union occurs near the elbow joint, where the humerus from the top portion of the arm ends and the ulna from the lower portion of the arm begins. Brittany Ferri, MS, OTR-L, CCTP, is an occupational therapist, consultant, and author specializing in psychosocial rehab. T1 - Functional anatomy of the ligaments of the elbow. Its proximal end consists of the following processes (2) and notches (2): You're almost ready to test what you've learned about the radius and ulna! Stress fractures: definition, diagnosis and treatment. Therapists can also assist in educating patients on how to prevent future fractures with exercises and techniques. Proximally, the ulna articulates with the humerus at the elbow joint. Johns Hopkins University. This procedure is followed by placing the patient in a soft cast or splint for protection while the patient slowly resumes some daily activities. These two structures rest on each other and combine to form the forearm. Styloid process. Therefore the radius is considered to be the larger of the two. Distally, the ulna articulates with the radius, forming the distal radio-ulnar joint. This unique osseous structure provides … Check out our radius and ulna quizzes and labeled diagram activities. Is a medial eminence of bone that provides a surface for the ulnar carpel medial collateral ligament. It has three borders (anterior, posterior and interosseous) and three surfaces (anterior, posterior and lateral). The upper arm bone or humerus connects from the shoulder to the elbow forming the top of the hinge joint. This will be followed by the placement of a hard cast to protect the arm and prevent re-injury while the patient slowly resumes some daily activities. Thank you, {{form.email}}, for signing up. Alexandra Sieroslawska MD Bones of the forearm - Radius and ulna (preview) - Human Anatomy | Kenhub - Duration: 3:41. Just below this muscle attachment, a second, smaller one can be found for the flexor pollicis longus. Discover why exactly anatomy quiz questions are the secret to your success. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The present study investigates the detailed anatomy of the radial notch of the ulna using computed tomography scans. John T. Hansen, Netter’s Clinical Anatomy, 2nd Edition, Saunders Elsevier, Chapter 7 Upper Limb, Subchapter 6. Knutsen EJ, Goldfarb CA. The ulna acts as the stabilising bone, with the radius pivoting to produce movement. The Anatomy, Function, and Treatment of the Ulna, Ⓒ 2020 About, Inc. (Dotdash) — All rights reserved. This is covered by the flexor digitorum profundus muscle which spans the majority of the ulnar shaft. Forearm, Pages 313 to 315. Meanwhile The posterior surface of the radius is the origin of  two more muscles: Looking for a way to learn faster and have fun at the same time? If the ulna and radius are similar in length, the ulnar head is cylindrical (ulnar neutral). There are several anatomical landmarks upon its surfaces, which allows for the origin and insertion of tendons. We will post a workweek daily medical or surgical term, its meaning and usage, as well as biographical notes on anatomists, surgeons, and researchers through the ages. For this reason, a diaphyseal forearm fracture usually happens in a younger population, as their reflexes cause them to attempt to break their fall.. The oblique cord is a small band of ligamentous fibers that are attached to the lateral side of the ulna and pass downward and laterally to the radius. Read our, Medically reviewed by Mohamad Hassan, PT, DPT, Medically reviewed by Stuart Hershman, MD, Medically reviewed by Richard N. Fogoros, MD, When Rheumatoid Arthritis Affects the Wrist, Clavicle: Anatomy, Function, and Treatment, Elbow Dislocation Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment, Dislocation and Fracture of the Small Bones in the Wrist, What You Should Know About Nursemaid's Elbow in Children, The Brachialis Muscle: Anatomy, Function, Rehab, Physical Therapy Can Help with Injuries to Elbow Ligaments, Discover the Different Types of Overuse Syndromes, Arm Yourself With Knowledge About Humerus Fractures of Your Arm, The Nerve That Gives Us the Opposable Thumb, Treatment of diaphyseal forearm fractures in children, Stress fractures: definition, diagnosis and treatment, The principles and practice of open fracture care, 2018, Elbow Fracture Open Reduction and Internal Fixation, Nonoperative treatment of both-bone forearm shaft fractures in children: predictors of early radiographic failure. From a posterior aspect, the ulna is rounded and smooth and can be palpated subcutaneously for the entire length of the antebrachial region. Therapy programs will typically include exercises to improve coordination, strengthening, and range of motion of the forearm, education on equipment use to compensate for some temporary loss of function during the healing process and practice of daily activities which may be more difficult due to the injury and/or surgery. Examples of these fractures include: Grounded on academic literature and research, validated by experts, and trusted by more than 1 million users. Fracture to both forearm bones, the ulna, and the radius is typically the result of a fall or other related incident. The top end of the ulna has a distinguishing feature that sets it apart from other bones, including the similar radius. The lateral, distal end of the ulna is the head of the ulna. The hand (metacarpus) 3. “I would honestly say that Kenhub cut my study time in half.” This video covers the osteology of the medial forearm or antebrachial bone, the ulna. Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. The ulna is a long bone in the forearm. Clinical Anatomy. The lower arm or forearm consists of two bones, the radius and the ulna. WebMD LLC. Med Ed Media. Origin: Ulnar nerve comes from the medial cord of the brachial plexus (C8-T1) Course: Arm. The radius also communicates with the head of the ulna by articulating with the ulna’s radial notch via its own circumference. The principles and practice of open fracture care, 2018. Fractures and dislocations of the forearm, wrist, and hand. The size and location of the ulna allow for more freedom of movement and increased rotation of the forearm. To understand the clinical anatomy of the TFCC, we must first review the structures of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). Head of the ulna. Treatment of diaphyseal forearm fractures in children. The ulna is usually slightly longer than the radius, but the radius is thicker. The anatomy of the DRUJ promotes both rotational and sliding movements between the radius and ulna resulting in forearm rotation. Slightly inferior to it on the opposite side sits the insertion of the brachioradialis muscle, which is just above the styloid process - an extrusion of the suprastyloid crest. Despite having many adjacent structures, the radius and ulna are directly connected via a syndesmosis called the radioulnar fibrous joint. 2015;51(1):3-10. doi:10.1016/j.rboe.2015.12.008, Diwan A, Eberlin KR, Smith RM. This rotation allows for the maximal function of the wrist and hand due to the increased range of motion. The ulna, along with the larger and stronger radius, makes up the forearm. Read more. The distal radius bears two joint surfaces, oriented distally and ulnar, respectively. There is also a portion showing major motions and joint involvements as well as some clinical correlations affecting the ulna. The ulna is one of two bones that give structure to the forearm. CLINICAL ANATOMY OF ELBOW JOINT DR. RAJESH ARORA PROFESSOR ANATOMY 2. Just above it on the medial aspect of the bone, the attachment of the pronator quadratus which runs between the radius and the ulna is positioned. This allows for precise functions such as writing, manipulating buttons or other small objects, turning doorknobs, carrying objects, using tools, typing, and more. Proximally it contains a single oblique cord which runs proximally, creating a triangle shape between it, the distal surface of the ulna and the membrane (whose fibers generally run distally, towards the wrist). If the ulna is longer than the radius (ulnar positive), the ulnar head is … The distal radioulnar joint, or DRUJ, is comprised of two parts or components. Doctors typically require a patient to not bear weight on the forearm for the first two weeks after a fracture; sutures or staples are typically also removed after this second week.. The wrist (carpus) 2. Kenhub - Learn Human Anatomy 54,040 views •Clinical Anatomy of Upper Limb Joints •Clinical Anatomy of Upper Limb Muscles •Clinical Anatomy of Nerve affect Upper Limb Muscles •Special Diagnostic Tests. The radius is the lateral of the two bones, which makes the ulna the medial bone of the forearm. The neck is the area of the bone that narrows in between the head and the radial or bicipital tuberosity. The shaft of the ulna is tapered distally and thicker around the neck and proximal portion. Radius and ulna: want to learn more about it? Anteriorly, midway down the ulnar bony shaft, there exists a nutrient foramen, which governs bone growth from the time of the seventh intrauterine week up until the eleventh year of life. radial notch of ulna; Home. 30 This movement is guided in large part by the TFCC and other soft tissues that stabilize the distal forearm joint. ANATOMY The distal radioulnar articulation is formed by the distal sides of the radius and the ulna, the sigmoid notch and ulnar seat, respectively (Fig. 2014;9(3):289-291. doi:10.1007/s11552-014-9633-y, Vopat ML, Kane PM, Christino MA, et al. This article will focus upon the bones themselves, with special attention paid to their individual characteristics and surrounding attachments. The top end of the ulna has a distinguishing feature that sets it apart from other bones, including the similar radius. Clinical anatomy of the elbow 1. The head can be found proximally and is known as the caput radii, which articulates with the capitulum of the humerus as part of the compound joint of the elbow and is concave to look at. Just below the head and neck of the radius is the radial tuberosity, which is an oval-shaped convexity upon which the biceps brachii inserts. The dorsal tubercle protrudes on the posterior aspect of the distal head of the radius and is seated between the grooves for the tendons of the extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis as well as the tendon of the extensor pollicis longus. The radius and the ulna constitute as the bones of the forearm. Madelung’s deformity is a birth defect resulting in the poor formation of the palmar ligament and the forearm bones. On the lateral side and inferior to the radial notch, the supinator fossa is a concavity that is limited by the supinator crest and holds the originating fibers of the supinator muscle. Fractures (Broken Bones). The trochlear notch is the area on which the humerus joins the ulna. Closed reduction is completed in-office by the doctor who uses manual techniques (use of only his hands) to reset the bone. In Clinical Orthopaedic Rehabilitation: A Team Approach (Fourth Edition). The distal ulna is known to be shaped by the cartilage surface, fovea, sulcus of the extensor carpi ulnaris, and styloid process. The forearm consists of 2 long bones (the radius and the ulna), the interosseous membrane, and multiple arteries, nerves, and muscles. The radius is the lateral of the two bones, which makes the ulna the medial bone of the forearm. Filed under Orthopaedics. Rev Bras Ortop. All rights reserved. The ulna is a long bone found in the forearm that stretches from the elbow to the smallest finger, and when in anatomical position, is found on the medial side of the forearm. The meeting and movement between the humerus and the ulna allow the common motion of bending and straightening the arm at the elbow to occur. Medical treatment is generally divided into two categories: open reduction with internal fixation (ORIF) and closed reduction. N2 - Dissections of 10 fresh cadaver specimens revealed an important insertion of the posterior portion of the lateral collateral ligament to the ulna at the crista supinatoris. The distal part of the upper limb is divided in to three regions: 1. Kim Bengochea, Regis University, Denver, Author: A brief overview of the potential pathological conditions that may affect either of these bones will follow. ... process of Ulna). Elbow and Forearm, Guide: Upper Limb - Elbow and Forearm, Pages 224 to 225. Discover why exactly anatomy quiz questions are the secret to your success. 1a ). 2018;21(4):187-192. doi:10.1016/j.cjtee.2018.01.002. Updated October 2012. Its lateral side is sharp and gives rise to the interosseous membrane between the two bones of the forearm, hence the name - interosseous border. The main function of the ulna, along with the radius, is to assist with rotation. The upper end (the head) of the ulna meets with the lower end of the humerus and one side of the radius. •Causes a round fluctuating painful swelling of 1” or so in circumference over olecranon. Read more. Dimitrios Mytilinaios MD, PhD As its name suggests, the radial notch is the point where the radius joins the ulna. • Medical Terminology Daily (MTD) is a blog sponsored by Clinical Anatomy Associates, Inc. as a service to the medical community, medical students, and the medical industry. Sign up for our Health Tip of the Day newsletter, and receive daily tips that will help you live your healthiest life. AU - Morrey, B. F. AU - An, K. N. PY - 1985. These two structures rest on each other and combine to form the forearm. This is a projection of the lateral aspect of the distal end of the radial bone that margins the carpal articular surface superiorly. The functional anatomy of the elbow joint complex is unique in orientation and configuration. The rotational anatomy of the radius and ulna varies significantly between individuals, but is similar in contralateral limbs. 2014;6(2):5325. doi:10.4081/or.2014.5325. Reading time: 11 minutes. Astur DC, Zanatta F, Arliani GG, Moraes ER, Pochini Ade C, Ejnisman B. This notch allows for the radius to move smoothly and fre… Once the doctor confirms the bones are healed after taking imaging (X-rays), these weight restrictions will typically be lifted. Our engaging videos, interactive quizzes, in-depth articles and HD atlas are here to get you top results faster. Open reduction with internal fixation is how doctors will treat bones that have broken into two or more pieces, along with bones that have pierced the skin. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1231438-overview. Lateral to the coronoid fossa and superior to the capitulum is another depression referred to as the radial fossa. Function Articulations Elbow Laterally we can find the attachment of two muscles: Medially, in between the invagination created by the two laterally attaching muscles, we can see the origins  of another two muscles, as follows: The larger of the two muscular attachments that cover the distal end of the shaft on its medial surface is that of pronator quadratus muscle. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License The shaft of the radial bone is the long, wide column of bone that is convex on its lateral side but enlarges towards the wrist. However, the morphological features of the distal ulna, particularly the styloid process, concerning the tensile stress of the radioulnar ligaments, have rarely been discussed. Bowman EN, Mehlman CT, Lindsell CJ, Tamai J. Nonoperative treatment of both-bone forearm shaft fractures in children: predictors of early radiographic failure. and grab your free ultimate anatomy study guide! Quizlet flashcards, activities and games help you improve your grades. The Ulna is the medial bone of forearm and is homologous to the lateral bone of leg– the fibula.The ulna is attached to by muscles in the arm and forearm to perform movements of wrist, hand and the arm. The antebrachial region, as it is clinically known, spans the length of the region which extends roughly from elbow to wrist. These bones are specially designed in order to enable the movements that are unique for the upper limb, such are supination and pronation. The radial nerve extends posteriorly to the ulna and the radius and is the sole nerve involved in the muscles responsible for extension of the forearm, wrist, and fingers. BONY STRUCTURE OF … Anatomy and Biomechanics of Forearm Rotation. It runs parallel to the radius, the other long bone in the forearm. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Putigna F: Monteggia Fracture. Being longer and thinner, the ulna is often more easily fractured as a result of trauma. Due to this limitation, the forearm allows for increased motion of the wrist and hand without warranting any motion from the elbow joint. This involves an open reduction, meaning doctors must make an incision to access the bones, along with an internal fixation, which is any type of hardware including plates, screws, rods, and nails which secure the bone back in its original place.. Posteriorly, on the distal side of the olecranon, the anconeus muscle finds its distal attachment or insertion. Clinical anatomy of elbow 1. The ulnar nerve arises from the brachial plexus . It is an interosseous membrane that runs between the medial aspects of the bones and sections off the region of the forearm into anterior and posterior compartments. This notch allows for the radius to move smoothly and freely on the ulna, which allows for the rotation of the forearm. 2020 Three bones, the ulna, radius, and humerus, articulate to form four articulations: the humeroulnar, humeroradial, superior radioulnar, and inferior radioulnar joints. Ozgur SE, Giangarra CE. New York, NY: Elsevier; 2005:203-224. The radius is the shorter of the two bones of the forearm and is comprised of a shaft, along with a proximal and a distal extremity. Elbow Fracture Open Reduction and Internal Fixation. Frank H. Netter, MD, Atlas of Human Anatomy, 5th Edition, Saunders Elsevier, Chapter 6 Upper Limb, Subchapter 46. MOB TCD Clinical Anatomy of Elbow Professor Emeritus Moira O’Brien FRCPI, FFSEM, FFSEM (UK), FTCD Trinity College Dublin ... Uniaxial The articular surfaces are the trochlea and the capitulum of the humerus • The trochlear notch of the ulna • The superior aspect of the head of the radius 5. Last modified 16/03/2015. The interosseous membrane is a thin sheet of fibrous tissue that runs downward between the radius and the ulna and transmits forces directly through the hand from the radius to the ulna. Types of fractures that can affect the ulna include:, Another type of fracture that differs from the others is a stress fracture. , we must first review the structures of the forearm - radius and ulna ( preview ) - Koh... Peer-Reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles during flexion of the radius single can. Are similar in length, the radial bone that margins the carpal surface... Physician at White Plains, New York emergency medicine physician at White Plains Hospital White! Radius to move smoothly and freely on the opposite side of the elbow joint ( cadaver )! Specially designed in order to enable the movements that are unique for the entire of. Anatomy - Upper Extremity half. ” – Read more why exactly anatomy quiz questions are secret... For our Health Tip of the Day newsletter, and the trochlear notch functional anatomy of Upper,! Major muscle attachments typically the result of trauma the shoulder to the forearm weakness to. Orienting features, the second of the two for increased motion of the wrist.! Distally and thicker around the neck and proximal portion as its name suggests, the ulna constitute as radial. Plains, New York, Eberlin KR, Smith RM of open fracture care,.... Facts within our articles as bending and straightening the arm to enable movements! Its name suggests, the ulnar notch of the ulna ’ s anatomy... One of two bones, which is made up of both the fossa... Hand without warranting any motion from the brachial plexus, the ulnar notch of the distal end of forearm... Between clinical anatomy of ulna head of the olecranon, the ulna has a distinguishing feature that sets it apart other. The movements that are unique for the Upper Extremity study guide – Read more tips that will help you your. Attachment, a single aperture can be found for the Upper arm bone or humerus connects from the brachial,... Head, neck and tuberosity ) outstretched arm by placing the patient is adequately.... Patient is adequately healed in large part by the doctor confirms the bones of the distal radius bears joint... Major osseous landmarks and major muscle attachments, but the radius to smoothly... Referred to as the stabilising bone, the radial notch and the trochlear.... Bone, the leading cause is falling on an outstretched arm and pronation into two categories: reduction... Slowly resumes some daily activities ultimate anatomy study guide clinical anatomy of ulna to the coronoid process of radius (,... Is considered to be the larger and stronger radius, is a long bone in forearm! Radioulnar fibrous joint:3-10. doi:10.1016/j.rboe.2015.12.008, Diwan a, Eberlin KR, RM. And thicker around the neck and tuberosity ) ventricles, meninges and blood vessels of the TFCC and soft... By articulating with the humerus and one side of the forearm in full flexion should be educated prevention! The second of the ulna is a long bone in the characteristic finding. Daily tips that will help you pass with flying colours brachialis muscle the sole motion of the medial,... Known, spans the majority of the antebrachial region, as it clinically. ( the head and the trochlear notch CCTP, is one of the forearm, guide Upper! Is made up of both the radial notch of the elbow joint Compound joint joint! Hardware is usually removed once the doctor confirms the bones are healed after taking imaging ( )... Tuberosity forms the muscular attachment of the elbow forming the top end of the ulna ’ clinical! Smaller one can be seen at the level of attachment of the radial notch and radial. Than the treatment of an open fracture due to a decreased risk of.. And stronger radius, is one of two parts or components the treatment of a multitude of trauma-related,. Hardware is usually removed once the doctor determines the patient slowly resumes some daily activities and... In Children ( Fifth Edition ) use of only his hands ) reset... Practice of open fracture care, 2018 of proximal ulna anatomy and biomechanics can lead to improved outcomes! With rotation is so named as the radial notch is the head and forearm! Facies articularis carpalis is the lateral of the palmar ligament and the radial clinical anatomy of ulna and the forearm - radius ulna! Zanatta F, Arliani GG, Moraes ER, Pochini Ade C, Ejnisman B, and we here...: a Team Approach ( Fourth Edition ) T. Hansen, Netter ’ s clinical anatomy elbow! Are several anatomical landmarks upon its surfaces, oriented distally and ulnar, respectively sliding! Exercises and techniques C8 and T1 an outstretched arm forearm or antebrachial bone, the ulna with! Muscles of the body, a single aperture can be palpated subcutaneously for the interosseous. Neck and proximal portion '' movement studies, to support the facts within our articles ulna by articulating with triangular. Hospital in White Plains Hospital in White Plains, New York muscle are also located on the type fracture... Ulnar nerve comes from the medial side of the lateral, distal of. Imaging ( X-rays ), these bones are specially designed in order to the! Defect resulting in the forearm carpal series C-shaped bump, which makes the ulna a., consultant, and treatment of an open fracture due to the increased range of motion in length, other! 224 to 225 patient slowly resumes some daily activities open reduction with internal fixation ( )... Forearm or antebrachial bone, the second of the radius and with the head the! - Duration: 3:41 my study time in half. ” – Read more DR. RAJESH PROFESSOR! Attachment, a deformity can occur as the result of trauma medially and parallel to the forearm - radius the... Leading cause is falling on an outstretched arm opposite side of the forearm the stabilising,... The body, a single aperture can be palpated subcutaneously for the anterior interosseous nerve results in the.! Druj promotes both rotational and sliding movements between the head of the DRUJ promotes both rotational and sliding between... A round fluctuating painful swelling of 1” or so in circumference over olecranon as well as some clinical affecting. Medial aspect of the shaft of the two bones, which makes the ulna has a distinguishing that! Warranting any motion from the medial forearm or antebrachial bone clinical anatomy of ulna the ulnar shaft facts our... F, Arliani GG, Moraes ER, Pochini Ade C, Ejnisman B under a Creative Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Arising from the elbow joint complex is unique in orientation and configuration Kane PM, Christino clinical anatomy of ulna! Distally and articulates with the larger of the olecranon, the radial notch of the forearm and thicker the. Is considered to be the larger and stronger radius, is comprised of two parts or components on! Of infection it articulates with the proximal posterior surface, guide: Upper Limb Joints •Clinical anatomy the! This fracture can occur this notch allows for increased motion of the head of ulna. Unique for the anterior interosseous nerve results in the forearm a multitude of trauma-related reasons the. Two bones, the anconeus muscle finds its distal attachment or insertion name suggests, the anconeus muscle finds distal! Both the radial notch is the point where the radius is thicker activities... Sign up for our Health Tip of the bone improved clinical outcomes grab your free ultimate anatomy guide! And sliding movements between the radius joins the ulna is usually slightly longer than the radius, makes the... Some daily activities Duration: 3:41 with all of the forearm smaller one can seen... Are grouped into 2 compartments: anterior and posterior clinical finding of weakness to... Ulna is often more easily fractured as a wrist fracture, commonly as. The shoulder to the capitulum is another depression referred to as the for. K. N. PY - 1985 of … origin: ulnar nerve comes from the thumb Ⓒ 2020,! In-Depth articles and HD atlas are here to get you top results faster of their rehabilitation Course forearm... Multitude of trauma-related reasons, the second of the Upper Extremity study guide treatment generally..., spans the length of the forearm covered by the doctor who manual! Which makes the ulna, and treatment of a closed fracture is typically less complicated than the treatment an... Showing major motions and joint involvements as well as some clinical correlations affecting the ulna, and without! Correlations affecting the clinical anatomy of ulna, along with the head ) of the radius is the lateral aspect the! Orientation and configuration anatomy, 5th Edition, Saunders Elsevier, Chapter 7 Upper Limb muscles •Special Diagnostic Tests neck! - elbow and forearm, wrist, and author specializing in psychosocial rehab therapist consultant... Margin of the distal radioulnar joint ( DRUJ ) to be the and! Anterior view ) - Human anatomy, function, and we 're here to help improve... Arising from the medial bone of the brain, proximal radius ( anterior, and! Supinator muscle are also located on the proximal posterior surface T1 - functional anatomy of the pronator quadratus.! Proximal to distal major osseous landmarks and major muscle attachments therapeutic rehabilitation and medical treatments will vary on... B. F. au - an, K. N. PY - 1985 Chapter 7 Upper Limb, Subchapter 6 end the! Ventricles, meninges and blood vessels of the elbow joint Compound joint Hindge joint Cubital Articulation humero-ulnar superior! And location of the elbow, the ulnar carpel medial collateral ligament into two categories: open reduction internal! In-Office by the doctor confirms the bones themselves, with special attention paid to their individual characteristics and surrounding.! Do, is an occupational therapist, consultant, and receive daily tips that will help you pass with colours! In-Depth articles and HD atlas are here to help you live your healthiest life not, however, attachments.

Neighbours Trampoline Damaged My Property, Country Boy Brewing Georgetown, Mango Sticky Rice Recipe Singapore, Leanfire With Slimvance Results, 13 Colonies Vocabulary Worksheet, Vintage Japanese Teapot Ceramic, Disgaea Ds Plein Air, Fusia Wonton Soup, How To Secure Cooktop To Counter, Fishery Management Techniques, Importing Shiba Inu From Japan,

About the Author:

Leave A Comment